Computer security, cybersecurity (cyber security), or information technology security (IT security) regards the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of, or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
The field has become of significance due to the expanded reliance on computer systems, the Internet, and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and due to the growth of “smart” devices, including smartphones, televisions, and the various devices that constitute the Internet of things (IoT). Cybersecurity is also one of the significant challenges in the contemporary world, due to the complexity of information systems, both in terms of political usage and technology. Its primary goal is to ensure the system’s dependability, integrity, and data privacy.
Finally, from the 2010s, large-scale attacks and government regulations started emerging.
Since the Internet’s arrival and with the digital transformation initiated in recent years, the notion of cybersecurity has become a familiar subject in both our professional and personal lives. Cybersecurity and cyber threats have been consistently present for the last 50 years of technological change. In the 1970s and 1980s, computer security was mainly limited to academia until the conception of the Internet, where, with increased connectivity, computer viruses and network intrusions began to take off. After the spread of viruses in the 1990s, the 2000s marked the institutionalization of cyber threats and cybersecurity.